What is Manual Testing?


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About Manual Testing

Manual Testing is a process carried out to find the defects. In this method the tester plays an important role as end user and verify all features of the application to ensure that the behavior of the application. The Manual Testing is very basic type of testing which helps to find the bugs in the application under test. It is preliminary testing, must be carried out prior to start automating the test cases and also needs to check the feasibility of automation testing. The Test Plan is created & followed by the tester to ensure that the comprehensiveness of testing while executing the test cases manually without using automation testing tool.

It is not necessary to have knowledge of any testing tool for manual software testing. As the Software testing fundamental always says that “100% Automation is not possible” so the Manual Testing is very important.

Goal of Manual Testing

The main Goal of Manual Testing is to make sure that the application under test is defect free and software application is working as per the requirement specification document.

This type includes the testing of the Software manually i.e. without using any automated tool or any script. In this type, tester takes over the role of end user and test the Software to identify any un-expected behavior or bug. There are different stages for Manual Testing like Unit testing, Integration testing, System testing and User Acceptance testing.

A test plan document is created by test lead which describes the detailed and systematic approach to testing a software application. Basically the test plan typically includes a complete understanding of what the ultimate workflow will be. To ensure the completeness of testing (100% test coverage) test cases or test scenarios are created. Manual Testing Concepts also includes exploratory testing as testers explore the software to identify errors in it

After the testing is started the designed test cases or test scenarios will be executed & any differences between actual & expected results are reported as defects. Once the reported defects are fixed, the testers will retest the defect to make sure that the defects are fixed. The main goal of Software testing is to make software defect free & deliver good quality Product to customer. 

Manual Testing types:

Here are different Manual testing types; these types of testing can be carried out manually as well as using automation tool.

Difference Between Manual Testing and Automation Testing

Manual testing will be used can i buy modafinil online when the test case only needs to runs once or twice. Automation testing will be used when need to execute the set of test cases tests repeatedly.
Manual testing will be very useful while executing test cases first time & may or may not be powerful to catch the regression defects under frequently changing requirements. Automation testing will be very useful to catch regressions in a timely manner when the code is frequently changes.
Manual testing is less reliable while executing test cases every time. Using manual software testing it may not be perform test cases execution with same precision. Automation tests will help to perform same operation precisely each time.
Simultaneously testing on different machine with different OS platform combination is not possible using manual testing. To execute such task separate testers are required. Automation testing will be carried out simultaneously on different machine with different OS platform combination.
To execute the test cases every time tester required same amount of time. Once Automation test suites are ready then less testers are required to execute the test cases.
No programming can be done to write sophisticated tests which fetch hidden information. Using Automation testing, Testers can program complicated tests to bring out of sight information.
Manual testing is slower than automation. Running tests manually can be very time consuming.  Automation runs test cases significantly faster than human resources.
Manual testing requires less cost than automating it. Initial cost to automate is more than manual testing but can be used repetitively.
It is preferable to execute UI test cases using manual testing. Sometimes can’t automate the UI test cases using automation testing.
To execute the Build Verification Testing (BVT) is very mundane and tiresome in Manual testing. Automation testing is very useful for automating the Build Verification Testing (BVT) & it is not mundane and tiresome.

 

Conclusion

In the testing software application the Manual Testing makes a vital role. While doing manual testing activity the tester needs to be creative & patient. Testers need to play a role same as end user & execute the all test cases as per the end users point of view. In this article we have seen about the “What is manual testing?”, Goal of manual testing, Difference between Manual Testing & Automation testing. In next article we will see about what is Automation testing?

If you are working in Manual Testing, your valuable inputs will help our readers to know more about Manual Testing. So please share your thoughts and tips on Manual Testing in comments below. For software testing latest updates subscribe the Software testing email newsletter here.

100+ Best Software Testing Interview Questions and Answers


software testing interview question and answer

I’ve prepared this comprehensive list of software testing interview questions and answers post. These questions include tips to prepare testing interview, manual and automation testing questions, ISTQB and CSTE certification questions and some mock test to judge your testing skills. I hope if you go through all these questions and answers you will definitely crack any interview or at least feel comfortable and confident attending QA interviews.

Manual testing interview questions and answers
Ans. How to define a standard process for the entire testing flow, how to explain challenging situations in manual testing career, What is the best way to go about getting a pay rise. Click above link for answers to these questions.

Q. What is the most challenging situation you had during testing?
Q. How to perform testing if there are no documents?
Ans. Click here for the detailed post on how to answer these QA interview questions.

Q. How to prepare for software testing/QA interview?
Ans. Click above link to know – Where should I start with for preparation of interview? It’s almost 2 years I have faced any interview.

Q. Mock test to judge your software testing interview skills
Ans. Take this mock test paper helpful for preparing testing interview as well as the CSTE certification exam. Click above link for questions and answers.

Q. Winrunner interview questions with answers
Ans. Preparing for Winrunner interview – These are some important Winrunner interview questions frequently asked in automation testing interview. Winrunner questions 1questions 2 and questions 3

Q. Different Automation Testing Interview Questions
Ans. Click above link for automation interview questions like Difference between Winrunner and Test Director, What is TSL? What 4GL is it similar too?

Q. What is difference between Performance Testing, Load Testing and Stress Testing? Explain with examples?
Ans. Many people are confused with these testing terminologies. Click here for the explanation of Performance, Load and Stress Testing with examples.

Q. ISTQB questions and answers (more questions here  and here)
Ans. Click above links to read ISTQB paper pattern and tips on how to solve the questions quickly. ISTQB ‘Foundation level’ sample questions with answers.

Q. QTP interview questions
Ans. Quick Test Professional: Interview Questions and answers.

Q. CSTE questions with answers

Q. What is Desk checking and Control Flow Analysis
Ans. Click here – Desk checking and Control Flow Analysis along with examples

Q. What is Sanity Test (or) Build test?
Ans. Verifying the critical (important) functionality of the software on new build to decide whether to carry further testing or not.

Q. What is the difference between client-server testing and web based testing
Ans. Click here for the answer.

Q. What is black box testing?
Ans. Black box testing explained with types

Q. What is white box testing?
Ans. Click here for the post explaining white box testing explained with types

Q. What are different types of software testing?
Ans. Click here to refer the post explaining in detail all Software Testing Types

Q. What is Dynamic Testing?
Ans. It is the testing done by executing the code or program with various input values and output is verified.

Q. What is GUI Testing?
Ans. GUI or Graphical user interface testing is the process of testing software user interface against the provided requirements/mockups/HTML designs.

Q. What is Formal Testing?
Ans. Software verification carried out by following test plan, testing procedures and proper documentation with an approval from customer

Q. What is Risk Based Testing?
Ans. Identifying the critical functionality in the system then deciding the orders in which these functionality to be tested and applying testing.

Q. What is Early Testing?
Ans. Conducting testing as soon as possible in development life cycle to find defects at early stages of SDLC.
Early testing is helpful to reduce the cost of fixing defects at later stages of STLC.

Q. What is Exhaustive Testing?
Ans. Testing functionality with all valid, invalid inputs and preconditions is called exhaustive testing.

Q. What is Defect Clustering?
Ans. Any small module or functionality may contain more number of defects – concentrate more testing on these functionality.

Q. What is Pesticide Paradox?
Ans. If prepared test cases are not finding defects, add/revise test cases to find more defects.

Q. What is Static Testing?
Ans. Manual verification of the code without executing the program is called as static testing. In this process issues are identified in code by checking code, requirement and design documents.

Q. What is Positive Testing?
Ans. Testing conducted on the application to determine if system works. Basically known as “test to pass” approach.

Q. What is Negative Testing?
Ans. Testing Software with negative approach to check if system is not “showing error when not supposed to” and “not showing error when supposed to”.

Q. What is End-to-End Testing?
Ans. Testing the overall functionality of the system  including the data integration among all the modules is called end to end testing.

Q. What is Exploratory Testing?
Ans. Exploring the application, understanding the functionality, adding (or) modifying existing test cases for better testing is called exploratory testing.

Q. What is Monkey Testing
Ans. Testing conducted on a application without any plan and carried out with tests here and there to find any system crash with an intention of finding tricky defects is called monkey testing.

Q. What is Non-functionality Testing?
Ans. Validating various non functional aspects of the system such as user interfaces, user friendliness security, compatibility, Load, Stress and Performance etc is called non functional testing.

Q. What is Usability Testing?
Ans. Checking how easily the end users are able to understand and operate the application is called Usability Testing.

Q. What is Security Testing
Ans. Validating whether all security conditions are properly implemented in the software (or) not is called security testing.

Q. What is Performance Testing?
Ans. Process of measuring various efficiency characteristics of a system such as response time, through put, load stress transactions per minutes transaction mix.

Q. What is Load Testing?
Ans. Analyzing functional and performance behavior of the application under various conditions is called Load Testing.

Q. What is Stress Testing?
Ans. Checking the application behavior under stress conditions
(or)
Reducing the system resources and keeping the load as constant checking how does the application is behaving is called stress testing.

Q. What is Process?
Ans. A process is set of a practices performed to achieve a give purpose; it may include tools, methods, materials and or people.

Q. What is Software Configuration Management?
Ans. The process of identifying, Organizing and controlling changes to software development and maintenance.
(or)
A methodology to control and manage a software development project

Q. What is Testing Process / Life Cycle?
Ans. Write Test  Plan
Test Scenarios
Test Cases
Executing Test Cases
Test Results
Defect Reporting
Defect Tracking
Defect Closing
Test Release

Q. What is full form of CMMI?
Ans. Capability Maturity Model Integration

Q. What is Code Walk Through?
Ans. Informal analysis of the program source code to find defects and verify coding techniques.

Q. What is Unit Level Testing?
Ans. Testing of single programs, modules or unit of code.

Q. What is Integration Level Testing?
Ans. Testing of related programs, Modules (or) Unit of code.
(or)
Partitions of the system ready for testing with other partitions of the system.

Q. What is System Level Testing?
Ans. Testing of entire computer system across all modules.  This kind of testing can include functional and structural testing.

Q. What is Alpha Testing?
Ans. Testing of whole computer system before rolling out to the UAT.

Q. What is User Acceptance Testing  (UAT)?
Ans. Testing of computer system by client to verify if it adhered to the provided requirements.

Q. What is Test Plan?
Ans. A document describing the scope, approach, resources, and schedule  of testing activities.  It identifies test items, features to be tested, testing tasks, who will do each task, and any risks requiring contingency planning.

Q. What is Test Scenario?
Ans. Identify all the possible areas to be tested (or) what to be tested.

Q. What is ECP (Equivalence Class Partition)?
Ans. It is method for deriving test cases.
http://www.softwaretestinghelp.com/what-is-boundary-value-analysis-and-equivalence-partitioning/

Q. What is a Defect?
Ans. Any flaw imperfection in a software work product.
(or)
Expected result is not matching with the application actual result.

Q. What is Severity?
Ans. It defines the important of defect with respect to functional point of view i.e. how critical is defect  with respective to the application.

Q. What is Priority?
Ans. It indicates the importance or urgency of fixing a defect

Q. What is Re-Testing?
Ans. Retesting the application to verify whether defects have been fixed or not.

Q. What is Regression Testing?
Ans. Verifying existing functional and non functional area after making changes to the part of the software or addition of new features.

Q. What is Recovery Testing?
Ans. Checking if the system is able to handle some unexpected unpredictable situations is called recovery testing.

Q. What is Globalization Testing?
Ans. Process of verifying software whether it can be run independent of its geographical and cultural environment. Checking if the application is having features of setting and changing language, date, format and currency if it is designed for global users.

Q. What is Localization Testing?
Ans. Verifying of globalized application for a particular locality of users, cultural and geographical conditions.

Q. What is Installation Testing?
Ans. Checking if we are able to install the software successfully (or) not as per the guidelines given in installation document is called installation testing.

Q. What is Un-installation Testing?
Ans. Checking if we are able to uninstall the software from the system successfully (or) not is called Uninstallation Testing

Q. What is Compatibility Testing?
Ans. Checking if the application is compatible to different software and hardware environment or not is called compatibility testing.

Q. What is Test Strategy?
Ans. It is a part of test plan describing how testing is carried out for the project and what testing types needs to be performed on the application.

Q. What is Test Case?
Ans. A Test case is a set of preconditions steps to be followed with input data and expected behavior to validate a functionality of a system.

Q. What is Business Validation Test Case?
Ans. A test case is prepared to check business condition or business requirement is called business validation test case.

Q. What is a Good Test Case?
Ans. A Test case that have high priority of catching defects in called a good test case.

Q. What is Use Case Testing?
Ans. Validating a software to confirm whether it is developed as per the use cases or not is called use case testing.

Q. What is Defect Age?
Ans. The time gap between date of detection & date of closure of a defect.

Q. What is Showstopper Defect?
Ans. A defect which is not permitting to continue further testing is called Showstopper Defect

Q. What is Test Closure?
Ans. It is the last phase of the STLC,  where the management prepares various test summary reports that explains the complete statistics of the project based on the testing carried out.

Q. What is Bucket Testing?
Ans. Bucket testing is also know as A/B testing. It is mostly used to study the impact of the various product designs in website metrics. Two simultaneous versions are run on a single or set of web pages to measure the difference in click rates, interface and traffic.

Q. What is What is Entry Criteria and Exit Criteria Software Testing?
Ans. The Entry Criteria is the process that must be present when a system begins, like,
SRS – Software
FRS
Use Case
Test Case
Test Plan
The Exit criteria ensures whether testing is completed and the application is ready for release, like,
Test Summary Report,
Metrics
Defect Analysis Report.

Q. What is Concurrency Testing?
Ans. This is a multiple user testing to access the application at the same time to verify effect on code, module or DB. mainly used to identify locking and deadlocking situations in the code.

Q. What is Web Application Testing?
Ans. Web application testing is done on a website to check – load, performance, security, Functionality, Interface, Compatibility and other usability related issues.

Q. What is Unit Testing?
Ans. Unit testing is done  to check whether the individual modules of the source code are working properly or not.

Q. What is Interface Testing
Ans. Interface testing is done to check whether the individual modules are communicating properly as per specifications. Interface testing is mostly used to test the user interface of GUI applications.

Q. What is Gamma Testing
Ans. Gamma testing is done when the software is ready for release with specified requirements, this testing is done directly by skipping all the in-house testing activities.

Q. What is Test Harness?
Ans. Test Harness is configuring a set of tools and test data to test an application in various conditions, which involves monitoring the output with expected output for correctness.
The benefits of Testing Harness are: Productivity increase due to process automation and increase in product quality

Q. What is Scalability Testing?
Ans. It is used to check whether the functionality and performance of a system, whether system is capable to meet the volume and size changes as per the requirements
Scalability testing is done using load test by changing various software, hardware configurations and testing environment.

Q. What is Fuzz Testing?
Ans. Fuzz testing is a black box testing technique which uses a random bad data to attack a program to check if anything breaks in the application.

Q. What is Difference between QA, QC and testing?
Ans. QA?
It is process oriented
Aim is to prevent defects in an application

QC?
Set of activities used to evaluate a developed work product
It is product oriented

Testing?
Executing and verifying application with the intention of finding defects

Q. What is Date Driven Testing?
Ans. It is Automation testing process in which application is tested with multiple set of data with different preconditions as an input to the script.

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